Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Looking to the future of powering mobile devices, Japanese company Oki Printed Circuits recently demonstrated a prototype of a 0.8-mm-thick printed circuit board embedded with a 170-μm-thick rechargeable all-solid-state Lithium-ion battery. The prototype was on display at the JPCA Show 2010 in Tokyo last week, and the company hopes to bring the product to market next year. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Battery embedded in circuit board demonstrated at Tokyo exhibition (2010, June 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-06-battery-embedded-circuit-board-tokyo.html Panasonic Starts Mass-Production of High-Capacity 3.1 Ah Lithium-ion Battery More information: via: Tech-On and The Green Optimistic So far, there have been only a few circuit boards that have come with integrated energy devices. For instance, some circuit boards in mobile phones have embedded double layer capacitors to store energy, but these capacitors tend to have problems with high leak currents that increase the number of charges and drain the battery faster than normal. On the other hand, embedding the entire battery into a circuit board makes it possible to reduce leak currents and the number of charges, as well as reduce the peak power of the system. Oki Printed Circuits’ embedded thin-film battery, which is a product of Infinite Power Solutions, has an output voltage of 4.2V and a 0.7mAh capacity. With these parameters, the device could turn an LED lamp off and on, as demonstrated at the exhibition. If the battery’s power can be scaled up in the future, it might also be used to power other electronic devices.An article at The Green Optimistic mentions another potential future application of embedded batteries: “Electric cars could also benefit from an embedded battery that is spread all over the vehicle in independent modules that could power various parts of the car. When they break, the embedded batteries would also be changed easily and cheaper than if a total replacement of a unique and bigger battery would be needed.”Oki Printed Circuits plans to expand the applications of the technology with several corporate partners, and hopes to commercialize the device in 2011. (Left) The printed circuit board embedded with a thin-film rechargeable battery. (Right) The prototype lights an LED lamp. Image credit: Oki Printed Circuits. © 2010 PhysOrg.com
Explore further A microscopic image of GFAJ-1 grown on arsenic. The findings reported last week, were that some bacteria (GFAJ-1) thrived when access to phosphate was removed and the bacteria were grown in a highly toxic culture rich is arsenate. The scientists suggested the bacteria thrived because they were able to replace phosphorus, which has always been thought vital to life, with arsenic, which is directly under it on the periodic table and has similar chemical properties. The researchers also suggested the bacteria were replacing phosphorus with arsenic within the bases that make up DNA. These findings, if correct, would mean the scientists had found a new form of life on Earth, and it would also re-write the guide book on the essential requirements for life to exist elsewhere.After the findings were published in Science, other scientists began immediately to express their doubts at the conclusions of the paper, with some even expressing the opinion the paper should not have been published at all. One of the critics was Dr. Alex Bradley, from Harvard University, who blogged that there were a number of problems with the research. Firstly, if arsenic had replaced phosphorus in the DNA the molecule would have broken into fragments when the DNA was placed in water, since the arsenic would have hydrolyzed, and yet it did not. Secondly, the paper showed there was a small amount of phosphorus in the medium and Bradley argued that even though small, this could have been enough, since bacteria metabolism is extremely efficient. Dr. Bradley also pointed out the bacteria live in Mono Lake, which is rich in arsenic but which also contains a higher concentration of phosphate than almost anywhere else on Earth, and this means there would be no selective pressure for a life based on arsenic to evolve. Dr. Bradley also suggested a mass spectrum of the DNA sequences would have shown whether or not the nucleotides contained arsenic in place of phosphorus, but this was not done.Another critic was University of British Columbia biologist Rosie Redfield, who reviewed the paper on her blog, and has more recently submitted a letter to the journal. Among her conclusions are that the paper “doesn’t present ANY convincing evidence that arsenic has been incorporated into DNA (or any other biological molecule).” She also writes: “If this data was presented by a PhD student at their committee meeting, I’d send them back to the bench to do more cleanup and controls.”Dr. Redfield also points out there was phosphate in the culture and that the authors did not calculate whether the amount of growth they saw in the arsenate-only medium could be supported by the phosphate present. She calculates on the blog that the growth of the bacteria is actually limited by the amount of phosphorus.Another point made by Redfield is that the arsenic bacteria were “like plump little corn kernels” and contain granules, which are usually produced by bacteria when they have ample supplies of carbon and energy sources but there are shortages of other nutrients needed for growth.The authors of the arsenic bacteria paper initially refused to be drawn into the arguments, saying the discussion should be confined to peer-reviewed journals, but one of the authors, Ronald Ormeland, did answer questions on the controversy after giving a lecture on the findings at NASA headquarters yesterday. He said the amount of phosphorus in the sample was too small to sustain growth, and a mass spectrum was not done because they did not have enough money, and wanted to get the result published quickly. He also pointed out that the bacteria are still there and other scientists could duplicate the work and carry out further experiments if they wished. (PhysOrg.com) — NASA’s announcement last week that bacteria had been discovered that appeared to replace phosphorus with arsenic and thrive even in the most poisonous environments, has now come under fire from a number of scientists. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com 3 Questions: Sara Seager on the discovery of a ‘new’ form of life Citation: Critics raise doubts on NASA’s arsenic bacteria (2010, December 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-12-critics-nasa-arsenic-bacteria.html
Fluorescence images of BL21(DE3)pLysE fluorescent strains after growth and induced FP expression by IPTG. Image (c) PNAS, see doi:10.1073/pnas.1109554108 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Theoretical physicists offer explanation of how bacteria might generate radio waves More information: InfoBiology by printed arrays of microorganism colonies for timed and on-demand release of messages, PNAS, Published online before print September 26, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1109554108AbstractThis paper presents a proof-of-principle method, called InfoBiology, to write and encode data using arrays of genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli with fluorescent proteins (FPs) as phenotypic markers. In InfoBiology, we encode, send, and release information using living organisms as carriers of data. Genetically engineered systems offer exquisite control of both genotype and phenotype. Living systems also offer the possibility for timed release of information as phenotypic features can take hours or days to develop. We use growth media and chemically induced gene expression as cipher keys or “biociphers” to develop encoded messages. The messages, called Steganography by Printed Arrays of Microbes (SPAM), consist of a matrix of spots generated by seven strains of E. coli, with each strain expressing a different FP. The coding scheme for these arrays relies on strings of paired, septenary digits, where each pair represents an alphanumeric character. In addition, the photophysical properties of the FPs offer another method for ciphering messages. Unique combinations of excited and emitted wavelengths generate distinct fluorescent patterns from the Steganography by Printed Arrays of Microbes (SPAM). This paper shows a new form of steganography based on information from engineered living systems. The combination of bio- and “photociphers” along with controlled timed-release exemplify the capabilities of InfoBiology, which could enable biometrics, communication through compromised channels, easy-to-read barcoding of biological products, or provide a deterrent to counterfeiting. Explore further © 2011 PhysOrg.com Called Steganography by Printed Arrays of Microbes (SPAM), the process is pretty simple. The team first developed seven different strains of the E. coli bacteria that grow in different colors (when bathed in ultraviolet light). They then devised a simple coding scheme based on pairings of the colors to represent letters of the alphabet (and some symbols). Next, they applied the bacteria to a plate of agar (a gelatinous substance that serves as food for the bacteria) where they grew into their respective color types. Next, a sheet of a nitrocellulose type material (that looks pretty much like paper) was pressed over the plate of agar, imprinting it with the bacteria. The result was then dried, causing the coloring attribute to disappear, making it ready for possible placement into an envelope for posting. After some time passed, the paper-like material was pressed onto an agar plate and the bacteria grew once again into their coloring, revealing the coded message.The process is so simple in fact, that it’s a wonder that no one thought to do it until now. Other means for encoding messages, such as stamping them into DNA, are in comparison much more complicated and expensive. The downside to this method of course, is that if someone wishes to intercept the message, it wouldn’t be all that hard to decode the message if they knew that it was bacteria encoded. To get around this problem, the team added fluorescence to antibiotic resistant genes so that the message would only become visible when ampicillin, for example, was introduced. Thus, the would-be snooper would not only need to know which method of coding was used, e.g. bacterial, they’d also have to know which antibiotic to use to reveal the right message. Message makers could even encode a false message for those using the wrong antibiotic.The authors also note that other factors could be engineered into their process as well, such as setting the bacteria to grow at certain times, or to die at others so the message won’t last long. Also, other types of nutrients that are maybe a little harder to find could be used re-grow the bacteria.Also, while such technology has obvious applications in espionage, other uses might be to watermark certain organic material or organisms to prevent counterfeiting. Citation: Chemists devise means to use bacteria to encode secret messages (2011, September 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-chemists-bacteria-encode-secret-messages.html (PhysOrg.com) — In the endless search to develop newer and cooler ways to send messages between people without other’s intercepting them, chemists from Tufts University working together have figured out a way to use a strain of bacteria to encode a message on a paper-like material that can then later be de-coded by the receiver. Manuel Palacios and David Walta, along with their team describe in their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, how they did it.
And another team with the National Institute of Standards and Technology found a way to experimentally demonstrate a 140-year-old prediction: A gas in perpetual non-equilibrium. They created a 3-dimensional cloud that never reached thermal equilibrium. In a more practical effort, a team at Cambridge University announced that they had developed a new method for scaling up quantum devices—allowing for control of 14 quantum dots with just 19 wires. Also somewhat related, a team of researchers at Harvard announced an experiment showing that light can go infinitely fast with a new on-chip material—the first on-chip metamaterial with a refractive index of zero.In other news, a group of geochemists at UCLA found evidence that suggests life on Earth likely started 4.1 billion years ago—much earlier than scientists thought—by studying zircons in a lab. And a trio of researchers (Jean-François Bonnefon, Azim Shariff and Iyad Rahwan) uploaded a paper to the preprint server arXiv, each looking at the ethical issues of self-driving cars. Each poses questions meant to stir policymakers into thinking about self-driving cars under ethical scenarios. Also, a team of researchers at the University of Queensland found 1500 ‘ageing’ genes that could lead to new treatments—which they suggest might lead to new ways to treat old age-related ailments. And an international team of researchers made an unexpected discovery—a comet that contains alcohol and sugar—comet Lovejoy , which left evidence of its makeup as it swept past our field of view this past February.And finally, if you are male and have been stressing about the impact that stress may be having on your body, you may have even more to worry about as a team at the University of Pennsylvania found that stressed dads affect offspring brain development through sperm microRNA. (Phys.org)—It was another banner week for physics as one team at Cornell verified the ‘Zeno effect,’ whereby atoms won’t move while observed. They conducted experiments in an Ultracold Lab and found that atoms that normally would tunnel under a given circumstance, would not if they were watched. Also another international team of researchers found a way to experimentally realize a quantum Hilbert hotel—they made two proposals, one theoretical the other experimental, both of which were based on an infinite number of quantum states. Physicists experimentally realize a quantum Hilbert hotel When the light “petals” (quantum states with an infinite number of values representing the infinite number of hotel rooms) in the top row are multiplied by 3, the number of petals in the bottom row is tripled—analogous to “tripling infinity.” Credit: Václav Potoček, et al. ©2015 American Physical Society Journal information: arXiv Explore further © 2015 Phys.org Citation: Best of Last Week—The Zeno effect, self-driving cars and the genetic impact of stress on offspring (2015, October 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-weekthe-zeno-effect-self-driving-cars.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
A chilled drink with lemon in it is an ideal way to ward off unbearable heat during summer season. Whether it is an iced tea or mojito, the citrus fruit can be included in your drink to refresh you. Besides the medicinal properties of lemon and the zest, the right amount of tang along with salt and sugar helps in keeping a check on blood pressure levels. So much for all the fainting sprees in this weather – we have some solutions. Here are four lemon based drinks that you can relish this season: Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ Lemon watermelon ice tea: Take watermelon chunks, blend them well. Add lemon juice to it and then mix it with the lemon flavoured ice tea and drink it to quench the summer thirst. Both fruits are refreshing and light. These help to fight heat stroke. Lemon mojito: Is made by mixing mint leaves, sugar, lemon, sprite and crushed ice. All ingredients are perfect to beat summer heat.Lemon putu monkey: Here’s a drink that has lemon along with other hydrating ingredients. Lemon putu monkey is a blend of coconut water with pineapple and lemon chunks which will keep you hydrated for sure. Lemon pina colada: A mix of coconut syrup, lime juice syrup, coconut water and lemon chunks. It is healthy, refreshing, cold and perfect to beat the heat.
Kolkata: Howrah Municipal Corporation (HMC) has chalked out an elaborate plan, mainly for desiltation of major drainage channels to keep the city free from waterlogging during monsoon.With a couple of months left for the monsoon season to set in, the corporation has started taking all necessary initiatives to ensure that waterlogging in the city becomes a matter of the past.The civic body has already taken steps in this regard and the work of desilting all major drainage channels in the city has already started. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsTop brass of the civic body held a high-level meeting, so that the work can be undertaken in time, ensuring that people do not face any inconvenience during monsoon. Additional manpower has been deputed to carry out the desiltation work and at the same time, officials are constantly monitoring the work to ensure its timely completion. Senior officials of the civic body have also visited the places that have been plagued by waterlogging in the past years. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedBesides taking steps to ensure that the logged water recedes fast from those areas, the officials have also identified the other infrastructural developments that need to be carried out for a permanent solution to the problem of waterlogging.Realising that besides desilting the drainage channels there is also a need to carry out the same in waterbodies under the jurisdiction of other agencies, senior officials of the department held meetings with the agencies and urged them to carry out the work. A senior official of the civic body said that water from North Howrah mainly recedes into Ranijhil, which falls under the jurisdiction of the railways. The civic body has written to the railway authorities, requesting them to desilt the lake. Senior officials of the civic body have also held a meeting with top brass of the railways in this connection.The civic authorities have also held meetings with Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authorities (KMDA) and the state Irrigation department. They held a discussion with KMDA authorities on necessary steps to be taken, to ensure that pumping stations function in full capacity during monsoon. At the same time, there was a discussion with Irrigation department officials as well, over desiltation of canals, including one in Nazirganj. Mayor Rathin Chakraborty said: “We carry out necessary work to check waterlogging every year. But this time, we have prepared a plan of action and initiated the work a bit early. Officials of all ranks are monitoring the work to ensure it gets executed properly in the grassroot level.” Bijin Krishna, commissioner of Howrah Municipal Corporation, said: “It is expected that the situation would be better this time, with necessary steps being taken to avoid waterlogging.”