Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Looking to the future of powering mobile devices, Japanese company Oki Printed Circuits recently demonstrated a prototype of a 0.8-mm-thick printed circuit board embedded with a 170-μm-thick rechargeable all-solid-state Lithium-ion battery. The prototype was on display at the JPCA Show 2010 in Tokyo last week, and the company hopes to bring the product to market next year. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Battery embedded in circuit board demonstrated at Tokyo exhibition (2010, June 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-06-battery-embedded-circuit-board-tokyo.html Panasonic Starts Mass-Production of High-Capacity 3.1 Ah Lithium-ion Battery More information: via: Tech-On and The Green Optimistic So far, there have been only a few circuit boards that have come with integrated energy devices. For instance, some circuit boards in mobile phones have embedded double layer capacitors to store energy, but these capacitors tend to have problems with high leak currents that increase the number of charges and drain the battery faster than normal. On the other hand, embedding the entire battery into a circuit board makes it possible to reduce leak currents and the number of charges, as well as reduce the peak power of the system. Oki Printed Circuits’ embedded thin-film battery, which is a product of Infinite Power Solutions, has an output voltage of 4.2V and a 0.7mAh capacity. With these parameters, the device could turn an LED lamp off and on, as demonstrated at the exhibition. If the battery’s power can be scaled up in the future, it might also be used to power other electronic devices.An article at The Green Optimistic mentions another potential future application of embedded batteries: “Electric cars could also benefit from an embedded battery that is spread all over the vehicle in independent modules that could power various parts of the car. When they break, the embedded batteries would also be changed easily and cheaper than if a total replacement of a unique and bigger battery would be needed.”Oki Printed Circuits plans to expand the applications of the technology with several corporate partners, and hopes to commercialize the device in 2011. (Left) The printed circuit board embedded with a thin-film rechargeable battery. (Right) The prototype lights an LED lamp. Image credit: Oki Printed Circuits. © 2010 PhysOrg.com
Explore further A microscopic image of GFAJ-1 grown on arsenic. The findings reported last week, were that some bacteria (GFAJ-1) thrived when access to phosphate was removed and the bacteria were grown in a highly toxic culture rich is arsenate. The scientists suggested the bacteria thrived because they were able to replace phosphorus, which has always been thought vital to life, with arsenic, which is directly under it on the periodic table and has similar chemical properties. The researchers also suggested the bacteria were replacing phosphorus with arsenic within the bases that make up DNA. These findings, if correct, would mean the scientists had found a new form of life on Earth, and it would also re-write the guide book on the essential requirements for life to exist elsewhere.After the findings were published in Science, other scientists began immediately to express their doubts at the conclusions of the paper, with some even expressing the opinion the paper should not have been published at all. One of the critics was Dr. Alex Bradley, from Harvard University, who blogged that there were a number of problems with the research. Firstly, if arsenic had replaced phosphorus in the DNA the molecule would have broken into fragments when the DNA was placed in water, since the arsenic would have hydrolyzed, and yet it did not. Secondly, the paper showed there was a small amount of phosphorus in the medium and Bradley argued that even though small, this could have been enough, since bacteria metabolism is extremely efficient. Dr. Bradley also pointed out the bacteria live in Mono Lake, which is rich in arsenic but which also contains a higher concentration of phosphate than almost anywhere else on Earth, and this means there would be no selective pressure for a life based on arsenic to evolve. Dr. Bradley also suggested a mass spectrum of the DNA sequences would have shown whether or not the nucleotides contained arsenic in place of phosphorus, but this was not done.Another critic was University of British Columbia biologist Rosie Redfield, who reviewed the paper on her blog, and has more recently submitted a letter to the journal. Among her conclusions are that the paper “doesn’t present ANY convincing evidence that arsenic has been incorporated into DNA (or any other biological molecule).” She also writes: “If this data was presented by a PhD student at their committee meeting, I’d send them back to the bench to do more cleanup and controls.”Dr. Redfield also points out there was phosphate in the culture and that the authors did not calculate whether the amount of growth they saw in the arsenate-only medium could be supported by the phosphate present. She calculates on the blog that the growth of the bacteria is actually limited by the amount of phosphorus.Another point made by Redfield is that the arsenic bacteria were “like plump little corn kernels” and contain granules, which are usually produced by bacteria when they have ample supplies of carbon and energy sources but there are shortages of other nutrients needed for growth.The authors of the arsenic bacteria paper initially refused to be drawn into the arguments, saying the discussion should be confined to peer-reviewed journals, but one of the authors, Ronald Ormeland, did answer questions on the controversy after giving a lecture on the findings at NASA headquarters yesterday. He said the amount of phosphorus in the sample was too small to sustain growth, and a mass spectrum was not done because they did not have enough money, and wanted to get the result published quickly. He also pointed out that the bacteria are still there and other scientists could duplicate the work and carry out further experiments if they wished. (PhysOrg.com) — NASA’s announcement last week that bacteria had been discovered that appeared to replace phosphorus with arsenic and thrive even in the most poisonous environments, has now come under fire from a number of scientists. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com 3 Questions: Sara Seager on the discovery of a ‘new’ form of life Citation: Critics raise doubts on NASA’s arsenic bacteria (2010, December 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-12-critics-nasa-arsenic-bacteria.html
Fluorescence images of BL21(DE3)pLysE fluorescent strains after growth and induced FP expression by IPTG. Image (c) PNAS, see doi:10.1073/pnas.1109554108 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Theoretical physicists offer explanation of how bacteria might generate radio waves More information: InfoBiology by printed arrays of microorganism colonies for timed and on-demand release of messages, PNAS, Published online before print September 26, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1109554108AbstractThis paper presents a proof-of-principle method, called InfoBiology, to write and encode data using arrays of genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli with fluorescent proteins (FPs) as phenotypic markers. In InfoBiology, we encode, send, and release information using living organisms as carriers of data. Genetically engineered systems offer exquisite control of both genotype and phenotype. Living systems also offer the possibility for timed release of information as phenotypic features can take hours or days to develop. We use growth media and chemically induced gene expression as cipher keys or “biociphers” to develop encoded messages. The messages, called Steganography by Printed Arrays of Microbes (SPAM), consist of a matrix of spots generated by seven strains of E. coli, with each strain expressing a different FP. The coding scheme for these arrays relies on strings of paired, septenary digits, where each pair represents an alphanumeric character. In addition, the photophysical properties of the FPs offer another method for ciphering messages. Unique combinations of excited and emitted wavelengths generate distinct fluorescent patterns from the Steganography by Printed Arrays of Microbes (SPAM). This paper shows a new form of steganography based on information from engineered living systems. The combination of bio- and “photociphers” along with controlled timed-release exemplify the capabilities of InfoBiology, which could enable biometrics, communication through compromised channels, easy-to-read barcoding of biological products, or provide a deterrent to counterfeiting. Explore further © 2011 PhysOrg.com Called Steganography by Printed Arrays of Microbes (SPAM), the process is pretty simple. The team first developed seven different strains of the E. coli bacteria that grow in different colors (when bathed in ultraviolet light). They then devised a simple coding scheme based on pairings of the colors to represent letters of the alphabet (and some symbols). Next, they applied the bacteria to a plate of agar (a gelatinous substance that serves as food for the bacteria) where they grew into their respective color types. Next, a sheet of a nitrocellulose type material (that looks pretty much like paper) was pressed over the plate of agar, imprinting it with the bacteria. The result was then dried, causing the coloring attribute to disappear, making it ready for possible placement into an envelope for posting. After some time passed, the paper-like material was pressed onto an agar plate and the bacteria grew once again into their coloring, revealing the coded message.The process is so simple in fact, that it’s a wonder that no one thought to do it until now. Other means for encoding messages, such as stamping them into DNA, are in comparison much more complicated and expensive. The downside to this method of course, is that if someone wishes to intercept the message, it wouldn’t be all that hard to decode the message if they knew that it was bacteria encoded. To get around this problem, the team added fluorescence to antibiotic resistant genes so that the message would only become visible when ampicillin, for example, was introduced. Thus, the would-be snooper would not only need to know which method of coding was used, e.g. bacterial, they’d also have to know which antibiotic to use to reveal the right message. Message makers could even encode a false message for those using the wrong antibiotic.The authors also note that other factors could be engineered into their process as well, such as setting the bacteria to grow at certain times, or to die at others so the message won’t last long. Also, other types of nutrients that are maybe a little harder to find could be used re-grow the bacteria.Also, while such technology has obvious applications in espionage, other uses might be to watermark certain organic material or organisms to prevent counterfeiting. Citation: Chemists devise means to use bacteria to encode secret messages (2011, September 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-chemists-bacteria-encode-secret-messages.html (PhysOrg.com) — In the endless search to develop newer and cooler ways to send messages between people without other’s intercepting them, chemists from Tufts University working together have figured out a way to use a strain of bacteria to encode a message on a paper-like material that can then later be de-coded by the receiver. Manuel Palacios and David Walta, along with their team describe in their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, how they did it.
More information: The National Ignition Facility (NIF): lasers.llnl.gov/An official announcement is below:The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world’s most energetic laser, surpassed a critical milestone in its efforts to meet one of modern science’s greatest challenges: achieving fusion ignition and energy gain in a laboratory setting. NIF’s 192 lasers fired in perfect unison, delivering a record 1.875 million joules (MJ) of ultraviolet laser light to the facility’s target chamber center.This historic laser shot involved a shaped pulse of energy 23 billionths of a second long that generated 411 trillion watts (TW) of peak power (1,000 times more than the United States uses at any instant in time).The record-breaking shot was made March 15.”This event marks a key milestone in the National Ignition Campaign’s drive toward fusion ignition,” said NIF Director Edward Moses. “While there have been many demonstrations of similar equivalent energy performance on individual beams or quads during the completion of the NIF project, this is the first time the full complement of 192 beams has operated at this sound barrier.”The ultraviolet energy produced by NIF (after conversion from the original infrared laser pulse to the final ultraviolet light) was 2.03 MJ before passing through diagnostic instruments and other optics on the way to the target chamber. As a result, NIF, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is now the world’s first 2 MJ ultraviolet laser, generating nearly 100 times more energy than any other laser in operation.Satisfying the NIF objective coincides with the third anniversary of the startup of NIF operations in March 2009, when 1 MJ operation was first achieved. Since then, NIF has increased its operational energy about 1 kilojoule each day for three years, a remarkable achievement. Today, NIF is fully operational around the clock, completing important steps toward the goal of ignition and providing experimental access to national and international user communities. The 1.875 MJ shot exceeds NIF’s original design specification and sets the stage for full-power experiments over the coming months. Not only did the shot achieve the highest recorded energy threshold, it also was one of the most precise ever fired at NIF: The energy produced was within 1.3 percent of its goal. Such precision is vital because the energy distribution among the beams determines how symmetrical an implosion is obtained in capsules containing fusion fuel. Implosion symmetry is a critical factor in achieving the pressures and temperatures required for ignition. Moses said that NIF will pursue operations at even higher power and higher energy levels to achieve ignition. “Our facility’s ability to demonstrate this level of precision performance as part of routine operations is a testament to the efforts of multiple teams supporting laser operations, target chamber operations, transport and handling and optics refurbishment,” Moses said.”For the past 15 years, since NIF groundbreaking in 1997, the scientific community has regarded the 1.8 MJ milestone as a tremendous technical challenge,” said NIF Operations Manager Bruno Van Wonterghem. “In 2003, we demonstrated this performance level on a single beam line, and in 2008 we repeated the demonstration on a single quad of four beams. To achieve this performance level with this kind of precision, quality and reliability on all 192 beams is unprecedented and very exciting.”Van Wonterghem points in particular to the enormous progress NIF scientists and engineers have made in economically maintaining the facility’s optics system while operating at unprecedented energy levels. Technicians adjust the target positioner inside the NIF Target Chamber. Citation: NIF facility fires record laser shot into target chamber (2012, March 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-03-nif-facility-laser-shot-chamber.html (PhysOrg.com) — The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California has set a new record for a laser shot. This past week, its combined 192 lasers fired a single 1.875-megajoule shot into an empty test chamber. After passing through the last of its focusing lens, the shot reached 2.03 megajoules, making it the first 2 megajoule ultraviolet laser. Explore further Laser Bay 2, one of NIF’s two laser bays Because the facility is funded by the US nuclear weapons complex, there has been debate about whether it would ever be used to prove or disprove the idea that lasers could be used to create nuclear fusion to produce electric power. Having the laser break records doesn’t really resolve that argument in the short term, but it might in the long run if it does eventually show that electricity could be created economically using such a process. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Researchers at NIF moving closer to fusion ignition point Prior to this achievement, the most the facility had managed to coax out of the laser, the world’s largest, was 1.6 megajoules. Also, the new record shows that the NIF laser is capable of producing more than it was designed for, which was 1.8 megajoules. It also proved that it was capable of doing so without damaging its parts, allowing for another shot a day and a half later, which is important, because one of the goals for the laser is to get it to fire off shots at 15 per second eventually. That’s what researchers think will be needed to produce power economically from the laser system.The ultimate goal of the NIF is to figure out a way to use a laser to produce nuclear fusion in a way that gets more energy out than is put in. Currently, that goal is still a ways off. Thus far, engineers at the project haven’t even reached the break-even or ignition point, though they expect that to occur sometime this year. Tweaking the laser to produce more than it was designed for is a step in that direction. The NIF facility was designed to produce a fusion reaction by imploding hydrogen isotope pellets using the huge laser. To that end, the team has made steady progress. When the project first began eighteen months ago, it had just one percent of conditions in place that are believed necessary to achieve the ignition point. They have improved that mark to ten percent and it’s because the pace has picked up dramatically in recent months that they believe they will achieve the ignition point sometime over the next six months, which is when the original ignition campaign was slated to end. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
And another team with the National Institute of Standards and Technology found a way to experimentally demonstrate a 140-year-old prediction: A gas in perpetual non-equilibrium. They created a 3-dimensional cloud that never reached thermal equilibrium. In a more practical effort, a team at Cambridge University announced that they had developed a new method for scaling up quantum devices—allowing for control of 14 quantum dots with just 19 wires. Also somewhat related, a team of researchers at Harvard announced an experiment showing that light can go infinitely fast with a new on-chip material—the first on-chip metamaterial with a refractive index of zero.In other news, a group of geochemists at UCLA found evidence that suggests life on Earth likely started 4.1 billion years ago—much earlier than scientists thought—by studying zircons in a lab. And a trio of researchers (Jean-François Bonnefon, Azim Shariff and Iyad Rahwan) uploaded a paper to the preprint server arXiv, each looking at the ethical issues of self-driving cars. Each poses questions meant to stir policymakers into thinking about self-driving cars under ethical scenarios. Also, a team of researchers at the University of Queensland found 1500 ‘ageing’ genes that could lead to new treatments—which they suggest might lead to new ways to treat old age-related ailments. And an international team of researchers made an unexpected discovery—a comet that contains alcohol and sugar—comet Lovejoy , which left evidence of its makeup as it swept past our field of view this past February.And finally, if you are male and have been stressing about the impact that stress may be having on your body, you may have even more to worry about as a team at the University of Pennsylvania found that stressed dads affect offspring brain development through sperm microRNA. (Phys.org)—It was another banner week for physics as one team at Cornell verified the ‘Zeno effect,’ whereby atoms won’t move while observed. They conducted experiments in an Ultracold Lab and found that atoms that normally would tunnel under a given circumstance, would not if they were watched. Also another international team of researchers found a way to experimentally realize a quantum Hilbert hotel—they made two proposals, one theoretical the other experimental, both of which were based on an infinite number of quantum states. Physicists experimentally realize a quantum Hilbert hotel When the light “petals” (quantum states with an infinite number of values representing the infinite number of hotel rooms) in the top row are multiplied by 3, the number of petals in the bottom row is tripled—analogous to “tripling infinity.” Credit: Václav Potoček, et al. ©2015 American Physical Society Journal information: arXiv Explore further © 2015 Phys.org Citation: Best of Last Week—The Zeno effect, self-driving cars and the genetic impact of stress on offspring (2015, October 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-weekthe-zeno-effect-self-driving-cars.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Chiral superconductivity experimentally demonstrated for the first time (2017, February 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-chiral-superconductivity-experimentally.html © 2017 Phys.org Quantum obstacle course changes material from superconductor to insulator When a magnetic field is applied parallel to a superconducting chiral nanotube, electric signals travel in one direction only. (Left) Illustration and (right) electron diffraction pattern of a single tungsten disulfide nanotube. Credit: Qin et al. Nature Communications Journal information: Nature Communications (Phys.org)—Scientists have found that a superconducting current flows in only one direction through a chiral nanotube, marking the first observation of the effects of chirality on superconductivity. Until now, superconductivity has only been demonstrated in achiral materials, in which the current flows in both directions equally. Explore further The team of researchers, F. Qin et al., from Japan, the US, and Israel, have published a paper on the first observation of chiral superconductivity in a recent issue of Nature Communications. Chiral superconductivity combines two typically unrelated concepts in a single material: Chiral materials have mirror images that are not identical, similar to how left and right hands are not identical because they cannot be superimposed one on top of the other. And superconducting materials can conduct an electric current with zero resistance at very low temperatures.Observing chiral superconductivity has been experimentally challenging due to the material requirements. Although carbon nanotubes are superconducting, chiral, and commonly available, so far researchers have only successfully demonstrated superconducting electron transport in nanotube assemblies and not in individual nanotubes, which are required for this purpose. “The most important significance of our work is that superconductivity is realized in an individual nanotube for the first time,” coauthor Toshiya Ideue at The University of Tokyo told Phys.org. “It enables us to search for exotic superconducting properties originating from the characteristic (tubular or chiral) structure.”The achievement is only possible with a new two-dimensional superconducting material called tungsten disulfide, a type of transition metal dichalcogenide, which is a new class of materials that have potential applications in electronics, photonics, and other areas. The tungsten disulfide nanotubes are superconducting at low temperatures using a method called ionic liquid gating and also have a chiral structure. In addition, it’s possible to run a superconducting current through an individual tungsten disulfide nanotube.When the researchers ran a current through one of these nanotubes and cooled the device down to 5.8 K, the current became superconducting—in this case, meaning its normal resistance dropped by half. When the researchers applied a magnetic field parallel to the nanotube, they observed small antisymmetric signals that travel in one direction only. These signals are negligibly small in nonchiral superconducting materials, and the researchers explain that the chiral structure is responsible for strongly enhancing these signals.”The asymmetric electric transport is realized only when a magnetic field is applied parallel to the tube axis,” Ideue said. “If there is no magnetic field, current should flow symmetrically. We note that electric current should be asymmetric (if the magnetic field is applied parallel to the tube axis) even in the normal state (non-superconducting region), but we could not see any discernible signals in the normal state yet, interestingly, it shows a large enhancement in the superconducting region.”Currently, the researchers aren’t exactly sure what causes the asymmetric electric transport in the chiral superconducting nanotubes. They plan to further investigate these mechanisms in the future, which would reveal new insight into the relationship between superconductivity and chirality. “Our next plan is to understand the microscopic mechanism of the observed phenomena,” Ideue said. “In addition, we will try to verify the universality of the nonreciprocal superconducting transport and its enhancement in the superconducting region.”Although it may be too early to tell what kinds of applications chiral superconductivity might have, the researchers explain that the one-way effect shares similarities with existing technologies.”One thing we can say is that nonreciprocal electric transport can be understood as a ‘rectification effect’ or ‘diode-like functionality’ (if it is large) so that it might be used to realize a ‘superconducting diode’ which could have potential applications for superconducting circuits,” Ideue said. More information: “Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube.” Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14465AbstractChirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity—unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Researchers find evidence suggesting spin liquids in ferromagnets may be similar to dipole liquids in ferroelectrics (2018, June 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-evidence-liquids-ferromagnets-similar-dipole.html Journal information: Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Nora Hassan et al. Evidence for a quantum dipole liquid state in an organic quasi–two-dimensional material, Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6286AbstractMott insulators are commonly pictured with electrons localized on lattice sites, with their low-energy degrees of freedom involving spins only. Here, we observe emergent charge degrees of freedom in a molecule-based Mott insulator κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Br, resulting in a quantum dipole liquid state. Electrons localized on molecular dimer lattice sites form electric dipoles that do not order at low temperatures and fluctuate with frequency detected experimentally in our Raman spectroscopy experiments. The heat capacity and Raman scattering response are consistent with a scenario in which the composite spin and electric dipole degrees of freedom remain fluctuating down to the lowest measured temperatures. Explore further A team of researchers with members from several institutions in the U.S. and Russia has found evidence that suggests spin liquids in ferromagnets may be similar to dipole liquids in ferroelectrics. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their study of molecular crystals and what they found. Ben Powell with the University of Queensland offers a Perspective piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. As Powell explains, the researchers were looking at the behavior of dipole liquids, which are theorized particles that are still not very well understood. Some phases of matter are relatively easy to observe—the spins of ferromagnets, for example. Other are not, such as the spin liquids. In this new effort, the researchers took advantage of features unique to molecular crystals—the structure and dipole inherent in dimer Mott insulators. To that end, they studied specific types of salts, noting that in the dimer Mott phase, most such dimers have a +1 charge. To conduct their study, they used Ramen scattering, comparing what they observed against vibrational models. Doing so allowed them to analyze dipolar fluctuations.The researchers report that they believe their experiments revealed evidence of excitations of dipoles or perhaps hybrid spin-dipole excitations that were provoked by interactions between the unpaired spins and dipoles. This, Powell explains, leads to the question of whether spin-dipole interactions might be involved in the particles observed in the salts—that is, if the excitations actually have hybrid spin dipole characteristics. If so, there lies the possibility that dipole liquids are similar in nature to spin liquids. If that is the case, Powell says, then the work by the team might have led to more questions than answers. But in either case, it offers other physicists new avenues of research efforts. Powell concludes by suggesting further work might involve the development of new tools that can be used to probe particle-like excitations directly—a means of proving one way or another if the two liquid states are truly alike, and if so, how closely. © 2018 Phys.org Crystal structure and phases of BEDT-TTF–based crystals. Credit: Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6286 Researchers seek existence of exotic quantum spin ice The structure of the crystal that was studied in the research; an individual molecule is highlighted in red. Credit: Institute for Quantum Matter/JHU
For more information about this study, please contact: Lisa Feldman Barrett at [email protected] or 617-794-4409, Ralph Adolphs at [email protected], Stacy Marsella at [email protected], Aleix Martinez at [email protected], or Seth Pollak at [email protected] or 608-698-2523. Read coverage of this report in The Washington Post, Forbes, The Verge, and the ACLU’s Free Future blog “It is not possible to confidently infer happiness from a smile, anger from a scowl or sadness from a frown, as much of current technology tries to do when applying what are mistakenly believed to be the scientific facts,” a group of leading experts in psychological science, neuroscience and computer science write in their comprehensive research review. “People scowl when angry, on average, approximately 25% of the time, but they move their faces in other meaningful ways when angry,” Barrett explains. “They might cry, or smile, or widen their eyes and gasp. And they also scowl when not angry, such as when they are concentrating or when they have a stomach ache. Similarly, most smiles don’t imply that a person is happy, and most of the time people who are happy do something other than smile.” The authors note that the general public and some scientists believe that there are unique facial expressions that reliably indicate six emotion categories: anger, sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, and surprise. But in reviewing more than 1,000 published findings about facial movements and emotions, they found that typical study designs don’t capture the real-life differences in the way people convey and interpret emotions on faces. A scowl or a smile can express more than one emotion depending on the situation, the individual, or the culture, they say. In a separate article in the journal, Alan Cowen and Dacher Keltner of the University of California, Berkeley; Disa Sauter of the University of Amsterdam; and Jessica L. Tracy of the University of British Columbia note that most scientists agree that facial expressions are meaningful, even if they don’t follow a one-to-one match with six basic emotion categories. They propose a new model for studying emotion-related responses in all their complexity and variations. This approach would measure not only facial cues, but also body movements, voice fluctuations, head movements and other indicators to capture such nuanced responses as smiles of embarrassment or sympathetic vocalizations, they say. “We thought this was an especially important issue to address because of the way so-called ‘facial expressions’ are being used in industry, educational and medical settings, and in national security,” say Barrett and her co-authors. The full text of the report and commentary are available to the public online. Software that purports to read emotions in faces is being deployed or tested for a variety of purposes, including surveillance, hiring, clinical diagnosis, and market research. But a new scientific report finds that facial movements are an inexact gauge of a person’s feelings, behaviors, and intentions. The report appears in Psychological Science in the Public Interest, and is authored by APS President Lisa Feldman Barrett of Northeastern University, Ralph Adolphs of the California Institute of Technology, Stacy Marsella of Northeastern University and the University of Glasgow, Aleix M. Martinez of The Ohio State University and Seth D. Pollak of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
A chilled drink with lemon in it is an ideal way to ward off unbearable heat during summer season. Whether it is an iced tea or mojito, the citrus fruit can be included in your drink to refresh you. Besides the medicinal properties of lemon and the zest, the right amount of tang along with salt and sugar helps in keeping a check on blood pressure levels. So much for all the fainting sprees in this weather – we have some solutions. Here are four lemon based drinks that you can relish this season: Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ Lemon watermelon ice tea: Take watermelon chunks, blend them well. Add lemon juice to it and then mix it with the lemon flavoured ice tea and drink it to quench the summer thirst. Both fruits are refreshing and light. These help to fight heat stroke. Lemon mojito: Is made by mixing mint leaves, sugar, lemon, sprite and crushed ice. All ingredients are perfect to beat summer heat.Lemon putu monkey: Here’s a drink that has lemon along with other hydrating ingredients. Lemon putu monkey is a blend of coconut water with pineapple and lemon chunks which will keep you hydrated for sure. Lemon pina colada: A mix of coconut syrup, lime juice syrup, coconut water and lemon chunks. It is healthy, refreshing, cold and perfect to beat the heat.
Kolkata: Howrah Municipal Corporation (HMC) has chalked out an elaborate plan, mainly for desiltation of major drainage channels to keep the city free from waterlogging during monsoon.With a couple of months left for the monsoon season to set in, the corporation has started taking all necessary initiatives to ensure that waterlogging in the city becomes a matter of the past.The civic body has already taken steps in this regard and the work of desilting all major drainage channels in the city has already started. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsTop brass of the civic body held a high-level meeting, so that the work can be undertaken in time, ensuring that people do not face any inconvenience during monsoon. Additional manpower has been deputed to carry out the desiltation work and at the same time, officials are constantly monitoring the work to ensure its timely completion. Senior officials of the civic body have also visited the places that have been plagued by waterlogging in the past years. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedBesides taking steps to ensure that the logged water recedes fast from those areas, the officials have also identified the other infrastructural developments that need to be carried out for a permanent solution to the problem of waterlogging.Realising that besides desilting the drainage channels there is also a need to carry out the same in waterbodies under the jurisdiction of other agencies, senior officials of the department held meetings with the agencies and urged them to carry out the work. A senior official of the civic body said that water from North Howrah mainly recedes into Ranijhil, which falls under the jurisdiction of the railways. The civic body has written to the railway authorities, requesting them to desilt the lake. Senior officials of the civic body have also held a meeting with top brass of the railways in this connection.The civic authorities have also held meetings with Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authorities (KMDA) and the state Irrigation department. They held a discussion with KMDA authorities on necessary steps to be taken, to ensure that pumping stations function in full capacity during monsoon. At the same time, there was a discussion with Irrigation department officials as well, over desiltation of canals, including one in Nazirganj. Mayor Rathin Chakraborty said: “We carry out necessary work to check waterlogging every year. But this time, we have prepared a plan of action and initiated the work a bit early. Officials of all ranks are monitoring the work to ensure it gets executed properly in the grassroot level.” Bijin Krishna, commissioner of Howrah Municipal Corporation, said: “It is expected that the situation would be better this time, with necessary steps being taken to avoid waterlogging.”