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They predicted that the outcome of this collapse as implied by Einstein’s theory of gravity is a space-time singularity: An infinitely dense and extreme physical state of matter ordinarily not encountered in any of our usual experiences of the physical world Most interestingly Einstein himself strongly opposed such an idea and conclusion In 1939 itself he wrote a paper suggesting that a star will never meet such a final fate of becoming a singularity that Oppenheimer and Snyder found and that it must settle into an equilibrium of a finite sized star Later it was found that like many other mistakes he made this was another such error that Einstein committed and the star collapse and singularity would happen for sure File image of physicist Stephen Hawking Reuters However with this great frown and oppose from the Master himself the entire subject then fell into a quiet and dullness for decades to come It took the genius of Stephen Hawking and other scientists like Roger Penrose Robert Geroch John Wheeler Kip Thorne and others to revive the subject in later 1960s and early 1970s Very rapidly they used the science of general relativity to flourish the physics of black holes and that of the universe as a whole It is worth recalling here that modern science has introduced us to many strange ideas on the universe However one of the strangest is the ultimate fate of massive stars in the universe that reached the end of their life cycles Having exhausted the fuel that sustained it for millions of years of shining life in the skies the star is no longer able to hold itself up under its own weight and it then shrinks and collapses catastrophically under its own gravity Modest stars like the sun also collapse at the end of their life but theystabilise at a smaller size But if a star is massive enough with tens of times the mass of the sun its gravity overwhelms all the forces in nature that might possibly halt the collapse From a size of millions of kilometres across the star then crumples to a pinprick size smaller than even the dot on an “i” called a singularity The point is when the star has a mass more than these limits the force of gravity is supreme and overwhelming It overtakes all other forces that could resist the implosion to shrink the star in a continual gravitational collapse No stable configuration is then possible and the star which lived millions of years would then catastrophically collapse within seconds What would be the final fate of such massive collapsing stars in the universe This is one of the most exciting questions in astrophysics and modern cosmology today It was the probing of this question which is fundamental to the entire science of black holes that brought together the trajectories of Stephen Hawking and myself During my explorations on the cosmos I have met very many brilliant scientists but Hawking has been the sharpest mind I ever met who always reacted most rapidly to situations To give an example in my seminar at Cambridge in 1983 as soon as I stated my theorem he made a penetrating query "How do I at all believe this" I explained the logic and he immediately said "Ah that is the point" Hawking’s greatest contribution was on cosmology and black hole physics Together with Penrose and Geroch he gave detailed theorems in the late 1960s and early 1970s to show that space-time singularities must occur when massive stars in the universe collapse at the end of their life cycles thus generalising the toy model that was given by Oppenheimer and Snyder The singularity will also occur in cosmology at the beginning of the universe Such singularities are so to say the boundaries of the Universe where all physical quantities such as densities temperatures and others blow up and diverge Can we ever see such singularities of the star collapse This was one of the most profound questions in modern cosmology In this connection Roger Penrose proposed in 1969 that the singularities of star collapse must be hidden within black holes or the event horizons of gravity This assumption called cosmic censorship gave rise to the massive science of black holes and their astrophysical applications as we know them today Hawking and I have had a great scientific engagement over the past many years and decades Hawking was a strong believer that the singularities of gravitational collapse of massive stars must be hidden necessarily within black holes The work from our own group in India in 1980s and later and many other groups internationally subsequently showed that we can also have what are called naked singularities namely those which are not in fact hidden within the black holes Finally in 1997 and in the last few years Hawking accepted that naked singularities could actually occur in the cosmos — and when this acceptance was made the news became The New York Times front page article He was an extraordinary human being whom I always found in full spirits despite his extra-ordinary physical disabilities I spent several months with him in Cambridge in 1983 and then met him later many times He had offered me a one year fellowship to work with him which I could not fully utilise as I had already accepted an alternate offer from the USA But on my way back to India I stayed in Cambridge and then interacted with him The routine at Cambridge was engaging Every day we would walk by the side of river Cam to the Cambridge University cafeteria together with a bunch of his students The long lunch would commence sometimes to continue for one and half hours or even more depending on the topic of discussion He would be fed by one of his students or nurse just like a child Half the food would fall or spill over to the napkins tied to his neck And totally undisturbed by that the discussion on the deepest topics on the universe would go on together with some jokes interspersed on British politicians or the American president or some appreciation of Cambridge sports persons All would return then to the university to work for few more quiet hours as the evening grew darker Once I coincided with him in a washroom and was totally struck by the complete childlike and physically helpless situation of the great man He had to be raised by a nurse to relieve himself and then slowly to be placed again in his wheel-chair In those days at least he could talk but the language was tough to follow Later on he completely lost control and due to deteriorating health could no longer speak But with his British humour he continued cracking jokes even using the computer He once said “Those who compare me with Einstein and his genius neither understand his work nor mine” Some people conjectured that it was his sense of humour and a very positive approach to life together with a cosmic curiosity that allowed Hawking to live longer despite such a severe and debilitating disease His spirit for life was so intense that recently even before a couple of weeks he discussed the quantum cosmology and no-boundary conditions for the universe Hawking visited Mumbai and India in 2001 At the end of his talk people clapped and stood up some even gesturing some kind of a sympathy He was averse to such shows and quickly moved his wheelchair away with much speed and left the stage rapidly As it turns out Stephen Hawking decided to move on to the other worlds on the day which is the birthday of none other than the great genius Einstein whose work he had continued I wonder if the two may meet anddiscuss the black holes and cosmos If they ever do so up there Hawking may possibly finally convince Einstein on black holes something which the latter thoroughly opposed all his life The author is a Senior Professor at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research MumbaiMumbai: The Income Tax (I-T) Department in Mumbai has quizzed Videocon Group Chairman-cum-Managing Director Venugopal Dhoot in connection with its ongoing investigations into the ICICI Bank-Videocon loan case official sources said here Dhoot was responding to summons issued by the I-T Department recently and was questioned by officials at its south Mumbai office for around four hours on Tuesday The probe pertains to suspected tax evasion in the Rs 3250-crore loan sanctioned by ICICI Bank in 2012 to the Videocon Group However when contacted by IANS a top I-T official declined to reveal details on grounds that "further investigations in the matter are still underway" Earlier the I-T had also questioned Deepak Kochhar chief of NuPower Renewables Pvt Ltd in the same case Venugopal Dhoot CMD Videocon Group Reuters The I-T is examining the links between the Videocon Group and NuPower Renewables Pvt Ltd promoted by Kochhar who is the husband of ICICI Bank CEO Chanda Kochhar More than a month after conflict-of-interest allegations emerged against her Chanda Kochhar had on May 7 said that the private lender works under and abides by all regulatory norms and that it has been fully cooperating with regulatory and investigative agencies Asked about the possibility of a third-party audit on the Videocon issue Kochhar said: "As the Board had earlier said that we have been extending full cooperation to the regulatory and investigative agencies and that we will continue to cooperate with them" Earlier ICICI Bank Chairman M K Sharma said the bank’s exposure to the Videocon Group (Videocon Industries and 12 of its subsidiaries or associates as co-obligors) for a debt consolidation programme and for the group’s oil and gas capital expenditure programme aggregating approximately Rs 40000 crore was less than 10 per cent He had clarified that none of "the investors of NuPower Renewables are borrowers of ICICI Bank" are aligned. 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